Microemulsion for topical application of pentoxifylline:In vitrorelease andin vivoevaluation

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Graphical abstractMicroemulsion containing pentoxifylline was developed and characterized for use as a topical alternative to treat skin disorders. The transparent formulation was developed and optimized based on a pseudoternary phase diagram. Pentoxifylline-loaded microemulsion (PTX-ME) was composed of 44% Tween 80™/Brij 52™ mix as surfactants (S), 51% of caprylic/capric triglycerides as the oil phase (O) and 5% of water as aqueous phase (A). It was classified as an isotropic water-in-oil (W/O) system with droplets that had a heterogeneous spherical shape within the nanosized range (67.36 ± 8.90 nm) confirmed by polarized light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. In vitro studies using static diffusion Franz cells revealed that the release of PTX from ME followed the Higuchi kinetic model. Topical PTX-ME application developed superior anti-inflammatory activity when compared to the PTX solution, reducing the paw edema up to 88.83%. Our results suggested that this colloidal nanosystem is a promising agent for the delivery of pentoxifylline, increasing its ability to modulate the inflammatory aspects of skin disorders.

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