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In this study, a novel asymmetric membrane osmotic pump capsule of gliclazide (GLC) solid dispersion was developed to achieve a controlled drug release. The capsule shells were obtained by wet phase inversion process using cellulose acetate as semi-permeable membrane, glycerol and kolliphor P188 as pore formers, then filled with the mixture of GLC solid dispersion and pH modifiers. Differentiate from the conventional formulations, sodium carbonate was chosen as the osmotic agent and effervescent agent simultaneously to control the drug release, instead of the polymer materials. The ternary solid dispersion of GLC, with polyethylene glycol 6000 and kolliphor P188 as carriers, was prepared by solvent-evaporation method, realizing a 2.09-fold increment in solubility and dissolution rate in comparison with unprocessed GLC. Influence of the composition of the coating solution and pH modifiers on the drug release from the asymmetric membrane capsule (AMC) was investigated. The ultimate cumulative release of the optimal formulation reached 91.32% in an approximately zero-order manner. The osmotic pressure test and dye test were conducted to validate the drug release mechanism from the AMC. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study of the AMC indicated a 102.66 ± 10.95% relative bioavailability compared with the commercial tablet, suggesting the bioequivalence between the two formulations. Consequently, the novel controlled delivery system with combination of solid dispersion and AMC system is capable of providing a satisfactory alternative to release the water-insoluble drugs in a controlled manner.