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Cinnamoyl alginate, cinnamoyl Pluronic F127 and cinnamoyl poly(ethylene glycol) were self-assembled into nanogel in aqueous phase. The size of nanogel was 100 nm–200 nm on TEM photos. When 1 ml of human growth hormone (hGH) solution (5 mg/ml, pH3.0) was mixed with 4 ml of the nanogel suspension (37.5 mg/ml, pH3.0), 100% of hGH was loaded in the nanogels (corresponding to specific loading of 3.33% (w hGH/w nanogel)). In the in vivo pharmacokinetics study, the substantial blood level of hGH was maintained during the entire experiment period (two weeks) after one-time injection of hGH-loaded nanogel at 0.5 mg hGH/kg body weight, and the area under curve (AUC) obtained with the one-time injection of hGH-loaded nanogel was higher than AUC obtained with daily injections of free hGH at 0.05 mg hGH/kg for 7 days. In the in vivo pharmacodynamics study, the blood level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) increased in 2 h and it was maintained during the entire experiment period (two weeks) after one-time injection of hGH-loaded nanogel at 0.5 mg hGH/kg body weight. The in vivo fluorescence images of mice injected with rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labelled nanogel suspension showed fluorescence intensity up to 96 h after intravenous injection, indicating that the in vivo residence time of the nanogel was greater than 96 h.