Advances in bioresponsive closed-loop drug delivery systems

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Controlled drug delivery systems are able to improve efficacy and safety of therapeutics by optimizing the duration and kinetics of release. Among them, closed-loop delivery strategies, also known as self-regulated administration, have proven to be a practical tool for homeostatic regulation, by tuning drug release as a function of biosignals relevant to physiological and pathological processes. A typical example is glucose-responsive insulin delivery system, which can mimic the pancreatic beta cells to release insulin with a proper dose at a proper time point by responding to plasma glucose levels. Similar self-regulated systems are also important in the treatment of other diseases including thrombosis and bacterial infection. In this review, we survey the recent advances in bioresponsive closed-loop drug delivery systems, including glucose-responsive, enzyme-activated, and other biosignal-mediated delivery systems. We also discuss the future opportunities and challenges in this field.

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