|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
A spray drying process was standardized to prepare an inhalable powder comprising d-cycloserine and ethionamide, two “second line” drugs employed for treating multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB). The aim of the process development effort was to maximize product yield. Contour plots were generated using a small central composite design (CCD) with face centered (α = 1) to maximize the process yield as the response criterion. The design space was experimentally validated. Powder was prepared and characterized for drug content (HPLC), geometric size (laser scattering), surface morphology (scanning electron microscopy) aerosol behaviour (cascade impaction) and powder flow properties. The optimized process yielded a powder with a median mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 1.76 μ ± 3.1 geometric standard deviation (GSD). Mass balance indicated that the major proportion of the particles produced by spray drying are lost to the outlet filter. The process represents a best-case compromise of spray-drying conditions to minimize loss during droplet drying, collection and process air discharge.