|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
I studied the diet of a troop of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima over one year via focal animal sampling. Fiber-rich foods constituted 45% of annual feeding time, and mature leaves constituted 38% of total feeding time. Feeding time on fruits and seeds was only 13% and 4%, respectively. Flowers and fungi contributed a considerable amount of annual feeding time: 15% and 14%, respectively. Their diet changed seasonally. They fed on more fruits and seeds in response to increased availability, and when these foods were not available, they ate mature leaves. When the temperature was low, they ate more herbs, possibly to save energy by not climbing trees and staying in sunny places. The results imply two dietary characteristics of the species that might relate to adaptations in temperate regions, where fruit is available during a limited season and fiber-rich foods are the only candidate of fallback food. They are capable of digesting a large amount of fiber-rich food, but at the same time they preferentially select high-quality fruits or seeds when they are available.