HimalayanSemnopithecus entellusat Langtang National Park, Nepal: Diet, Activity Patterns, and Resources

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Though researchers have studied lowland gray langurs extensively, there is little information about the Himalayan populations. We provide foraging data from a field study of Himalayan langurs in Langtang National Park, Nepal at 3000–4000 m elevation. Phenological records show marked seasonality in resource abundance, with extremely low availability in winter, increasing abundance in spring and monsoon, and a reduction in fall. Activity budgets indicated greater time devoted to feeding as total vegetation abundance decreased. Diet included leaf buds, ripe fruit, and evergreen mature leaves in winter; deciduous young leaves in spring; and deciduous mature leaves in the monsoon and fall. Supplemental resources, such as underground storage organs, bark, and herbaceous vegetation, were also seasonally important. Among plant part classes included in the phenological sample, abundance and consumption correlate positively for all primary food resources except evergreen mature leaves and unripe fruit. Daily path lengths varied by season and, when controlled for overall vegetation abundance, positively relate to the consumption of soft underground storage organs, fruits, and deciduous mature leaves. The results contradict the common generalization of leaves as ubiquitous or nonpatchy resources.

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