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The Wigner-Ville distribution of a multi-component signal has a unique structure. Based on this structure, a formant and pitch estimation method for speech signals is introduced. Formants and pitch estimated with this method are more accurate, have better resolution, and are easier to recognize than those estimated by other methods. A one pitch-period segment is adequate for formant estimation while a minimal two pitch-period segment is needed for both pitch and formant detection with one step. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the performance of this method, and comparisons with other methods are provided.