The formulation and immunisation of oral poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microcapsules containing a plasmid vaccine against lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

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Abstract

Nucleic acid-based immunotherapy is a new treatment option for fish immunisation in intensive culture. However, DNA-based vaccines would be hydrolyzed or denaturized because of the existence of nucleases and severe gastrointestinal conditions. Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microcapsules, loaded with plasmid DNA (pDNA) against lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV), were prepared by modified water in oil in water (W/O/W) double emulsion method in our laboratory. Encapsulation efficiency, loading percent and diameter of microcapsules were 78-88%, 0.5-0.7% and less than 10 μm, respectively. In simulated gastric fluid (SGF), less than 10% of pDNA was released from microcapsules in 12 h, and about 6.5% of pDNA was released in 12 h in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The content of the supercoiled of pDNA in microcapsules and control was 80% and 89% respectively, which indicated that a little supercoiled pDNA degradation occurred during encapsulation. RT-PCR showed that lots of RNA containing information of MCP gene existed in all tissues of fish vaccinated with microcapsules 10-90 days after oral administration. SDS-PAGE and immunoblots, as well as immunofluorescence images, displayed that major capsid protein (MCP) of LCDV was expressed in tissues of fish vaccinated with pDNA-loaded microcapsules. In addition, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the immune responses of sera were positive (O.D ≥ 0.3) from week 1 to week 24 for fish vaccinated with microcapsules, in comparison with fish vaccinated with naked pDNA. Our results suggested that PLGA microcapsules were promising oral carriers for pDNA delivery. This encapsulation technique had potential for drug delivery applications due to its ease of operation and notable immunisation efficacy.

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