This study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Esenbeckia leiocarpa against the inflammation caused by the carrageenan using a murine air pouch model. Material and methods: The effects of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE), fractions (n-hexane (Hex) and ethyl acetate (AcOEt)), subfractions (polar (Pol) and nonpolar (Nonpol)), or isolated compounds (dihydrocorynantheol (DHC) and beta-sitosterol (β-Sit)) isolated from CHE upon leukocytes, exudate, myeloperoxidase (MPO) adenosine-deaminase (ADA), nitrate/nitrite (NOx), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and inhibitory kappa-B-alpha (IκB-α) degradation were evaluated. The CHE, Alk, Pol, Nonpol, DHC and β-Sit, inhibited leukocytes, exudate, MPO and ADA, NOx, IL-1β, and TNF-α (P<0.05). The Hex and AcOEt fractions inhibited all of the proinflammatory parameters, except the exudate. The compound DHC prevented the IκB-α degradation. Conclusion: E. leiocarpa possesses important anti-inflammatory properties. These inhibitory effects occurred along with the downregulation of nitric oxide, IL-1β and TNF-α levels. The isolated compounds DHC and β-Sit may be partially responsible for these anti-inflammatory effects.