Asthma is an inflammatory disease closely associated with activated T cells in the lung. Imbalances in Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 have been found in asthmatic patients. Ligustrazine from the Chinese herb chuanxiong has been used in China in combination with glucocorticoids to treat asthma. Previous studies have proved that ligustrazine can modulate the expression of transcription factors for Th1 (T-bet) and Th2 (Gata-3) in asthma. In the present study, ligustrazine alleviated allergic airway inflammation in a mouse asthmatic model by reducing the influx of eosinophils and neutrophils, which was mediated, at least in part, by the regulation of Th1/Th2 and Treg/Th17 via the re-balance of cytokine profiles and of ratios of transcription factors, T-bet/Gata-3 and Foxp3/RORγt, thus providing new insights into the mechanisms of action for asthma treatment with ligustrazine.