A Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus is known to be one of the major pathogenic bacteria responsible for causing bovine mastitis. Among the various cell wall components of S. aureus, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and peptidoglycan (PGN) are closely associated with inflammatory responses. However, the role of LTA and PGN derived from S. aureus in bovine mastitis has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we characterized the gene expression profile of a bovine mammary gland epithelial cell line, MAC-T cells, in the presence of LTA and PGN from S. aureus. LTA plus PGN, but not LTA or PGN alone, activated MAC-T cells. The analysis of transcriptional profiles using an Affymetrix genechip microarray showed that stimulation with LTA plus PGN produced a total of 2019 (fold change > 1.2) differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 801 up-regulated genes and 1218 down-regulated genes. Of the up-regulated genes, 14 inflammatory mediator-related DEGs, 22 intra-cellular signaling molecule-related DEGs, and 15 transcription factor-related DEGs were observed, whereas among the down-regulated DEGs 17 inflammation-related DEGs were found. The microarray results were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR of 18 genes with substantial changes in expression (9 each from the up-regulated and down-regulated DEGs). These results provide a comprehensive analysis of gene-expression profiles elicited by S. aureus LTA and PGN in MAC-T cells, contributing to an understanding of the pathogenesis for S. aureus-induced bovine mastitis.