Both resveratrol(Res) and diphenyleneiodonium(DPI) have been shown to have radioprotective effects on hematopoietic system injury. However, the cooperative effect of Res and DPI are unknown. In this study, we explored the radioprotective effect of the combination of Res and DPI both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the combined treatment of Res and DPI was more effective in protecting irradiated BMMNCs in terms of cell viability, colony-forming ability, and reconstitution ability in vitro compared with Res or DPI treatment alone. However, in mice, the combination of Res and DPI had no enhanced protection on 4 Gy total body irradiation (TBI)-induced hematopoietic system injury, including TBI-induced myelosuppression, induction of the splenic index, and increases in HSC/HPC numbers and the colony-forming ability of BMCs,compared to Res or DPI alone. An exception was the number of BMCs. These studies illustrated the inconsistency between experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo and suggest an interaction between Res or DPI in vivo.