Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) combined with vitamin D3: An exploration to treat new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in the future

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of pancreatic beta cells through cell injury caused primarily by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+). The pathophysiological basis of T1DM seems to be an imbalance between a reduced function of T regulatory lymphocytes and an increased inflammatory activity of Th17 lymphocytes caused by increased production of inflammatory cytokines, as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IFN-gamma due to environmental factors and genetic predisposition. The preservation of the reserve of beta cells in new-onset T1DM and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) by immunomodulation in addition to the incretin effect seems to be possible with an association of DPP-4 inhibitors and vitamin D3. In this review, we discuss the effects of both drugs on the immune system and on beta cell function and their eventual additive effects in preserving the residual function of beta cells in new-onset T1DM and LADA.

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