Antiviral activity of porcine interferon delta 8 against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro

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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most devastating diseases affecting livestock. Since vaccines fail to provide protection until seven days post-vaccination, the application of anti-viral molecules is imperative for suppressing the spread of FMDV prior to development of an adaptive immune response. Interferons (IFNs) are effective for the host to fight FMDV infections; however, a novel type I IFNs, interferon delta (IFN-δ), has not been investigated for their antiviral effects against this virus. Thus, this study investigated FMDV infection, upon pre- and post-treatment with PoIFN-δ8. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify the expression levels of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including ISG15, OAS1, PKR, and Mx1. Results showed the PoIFN-δ8 lacking its signal sequence was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant PoIFN-δ8 exerted a significantly protective effect against two different serotypes of FMDV in IBRS-2 cells. In addition, PoIFN-δ8 induced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. These findings highlight the significance of PoIFN-δ might serve as an antiviral agent for the prevention of FMDV in pigs and will stimulate the study of exploiting the potential biological functions of IFN-δ in the future.

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