This study aimed to explore the role of long non-coding RNA NEAT1 in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). The expression levels of NEAT1 in sepsis-induced AKI patients were detected. The rat mesangial cells (RMCs) were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce cell injury. Then, the effects of NEAT1 suppression on the cell viability, apoptosis, cytokines expression, and oxidative stress in the LPS-stimulated RMCs were tested. The regulatory miRNA of NEAT1, as well as the target genes of this miRNA, were investigated. Moreover, the regulatory relationship between NEAT1 and the NF-κB pathway was explored. The results demonstrated that NEAT1 was significantly upregulated in the sepsis-induced AKI patients. Moreover, the upregulation of NEAT1 was associated with the serious degrees of AKI in sepsis patients. In addition, the suppression of NEAT1 alleviated LPS-induced injury in RMCs. MiR-204 was negatively regulated by NEAT1. Suppression of NEAT1 alleviated LPS-induced injury by overexpression of miR-204. Moreover, IL-6R was a target of miR-204, and the effects of the suppression of NEAT1 on LPS-induced cell injury were caused by inactivating the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, upregulation of NEAT1 may aggravate the LPS-induced injury by targeting miR-204 and activating the NF-κB pathway. NEAT1 may serve as an important diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in sepsis-induced AKI.