Anti-inflammatory effect of Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone via inhibition of MAPKs and NF-kB signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and zebrafish model

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In this study, we confirmed the anti-inflammatory effect of Apo-9-fucoxanthinone (AF) in in vitro RAW 264.7 cells and in vivo zebrafish model. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated zebrafish, AF significantly decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and cell death. In addition, the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), suppressed cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and an inflammatory cytokines; IL-1β, TNF-α were shown reduction. And AF significantly inhibited NO production and expression of iNOS in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Further, AF suppressed COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at 25, 50 and 100μg/mL, respectively. Further mechanistic studies showed that AF suppressed the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) pathway and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway molecules such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). According to the results, AF can be used and applied as a useful anti-inflammatory agent of nutraceutical or pharmaceutical.

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