Targeting RAW 264.7 macrophages (M1 type) with Withaferin-A decorated mannosylated liposomes induces repolarization via downregulation of NF-κB and controlled elevation of STAT-3

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Abstract

In the present study, we intend to gain an insight into the mechanism of Withaferin-A (WA), a steroidal lactone with reference to repolarization of RAW 264.7 macrophages (M1 to M2 type). We found that successful internalization of WA via mannosylated liposomal delivery system (ML-WA) reduced the RAW 264.7 macrophage (M1) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, and TNF-α) through the attenuation of transcription factor NF-κB-p65 expression. Whereas, ML-WA treatment induced a controlled upregulation of p-STAT3, and ablated the key oxidative stress markers (NO, iNOS, and ROS) in M1 → M2 RAW 264.7 macrophage repolarization, which suggested the recalibration of M1 macrophage metabolic function. Further, the elevated expression of M2 macrophage associated CD163 over the M1 macrophage related CD86 concluded that ML-WA induces an anti-inflammatory response by repolarizing the M1 → M2 RAW 264.7 macrophage.

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