American ginseng microbial metabolites attenuate DSS-induced colitis and abdominal pain

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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Abdominal pain is a major complaint among individuals with IBD. Successful IBD management not only controls enteric inflammation, but also reduces abdominal discomfort. Recently, increased attention has been focused on alternative strategies for IBD management. HPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis was employed to evaluate the intestinal microbiome's biotransformation of parent American ginseng compounds into their metabolites. Using a DSS mouse model, the effects of American ginseng microbial metabolites on chemically induced colitis was investigated with disease activity index and histological assessment. Expressions of inflammatory cytokines were determined using real-time PCR and ELISA. Abdominal pain was evaluated using the von Frey filament test. After the gut microbiome's biotransformation, the major metabolites were found to be the compound K and ginsenoside Rg3. Compared with the DSS animal group, American ginseng treatment significantly attenuated experimental colitis, as supported by the histological assessment. The enteric microbiome-derived metabolites of ginseng significantly attenuated the abdominal pain. American ginseng treatment significantly reduced gut inflammation, consistent with pro-inflammatory cytokine level changes. The gut microbial metabolite compound K showed significant anti-inflammatory effects even at low concentrations, compared to its parent ginsenoside Rb1. American ginseng intestinal microbial metabolites significantly reduced chemically-induced colitis and abdominal pain, as mediated by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Intestinal microbial metabolism plays a critical role in American ginseng mediated colitis management.HighlightsGut microbiome converts ginsenoside Rb1 into its metabolites Rg3, F2 and compound K.Oral American ginseng significantly reduces chemically induced colitis.Ginseng metabolites attenuates inflammation associated visceral hypersensitivity.The microbial metabolite compound K shows significant anti-inflammatory activity.

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