Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis, bone atrophy, and subsequent progressive destruction of articular tissue. Targeted inhibition of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) has been highly successful in preventing RA-mediated bone erosion in animal models and patients, suggesting that development of a RANKL vaccine might be of therapeutic value. Our previous study has shown that the recombinant RANKL vaccine Y234pNO2Phe, generated by replacement of a single tyrosine residue (Tyr234) in murine RANKL (mRANKL) with p-nitrophenylalanine (pNO2Phe), induces a high titer antibody response and prevents ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in mice. This aim of this study was to further evaluate the vaccine's preventive effects in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis. The results of this study showed that Y234pNO2Phe not only induced a high titer antibody response and inhibited osteoclastogenesis but also significantly prevented bone erosion and ameliorated the severity of a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model in mice. Moreover, use of the vaccine improved the clinical situations of the CIA mice. These results suggest a potential application of an anti-RANKL vaccine in the treatment of RA-induced bone erosion.