Neointimal hyperplasia is known as a main factor contributing to in-stent restenosis (ISR). Monocytes may play a central role in vessel restenosis process after stent implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU) and vitronectin (Vtn) gene expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples isolated from whole blood of 66 patients undergoing coronary artery angiography (22 controls, stenosis < 0.05%; 22 with stent no-restenosis and stenosis < 70%; and 22 with ISR and stenosis > 70%). The Vtn and PLAU gene expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. The age- and gender-independent increases in the expression levels of Vtn (17-fold; p < 0.001) and PLAU (27-fold; p < 0.0001) genes were found in the patients with ISR as compared with the control group. The results suggested that the Vtn and PLAU genes may be involved in the coronary artery ISR.