Cervical Arterial Fibromuscular Dysplasia in a Biethnic Population: A Retrospective Study in the U.S.-Mexican Border

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BackgroundThere have been studies trying to characterize Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD); however, most of them are based in mainly non-Hispanic sample. The objective of this study is to better understand the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of craniocervical FMD in the Hispanic population.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the cerebral angiograms performed in our center in a period of 3.5 years under any indication looking for angiographic patterns of FMD. Exclusion criteria consisted of cases in which the first angiogram was done when the patients were younger than 18 years. Patients were subdivided based on those with FMD and those without it for baseline characteristics and were looked for any associations. We further compared the same baseline characteristics among Hispanic FMD and non-Hispanic FMD population. A chart review was conducted looking for clinical features and vascular events.ResultsWe analyzed 448 angiograms among patients younger than 18 years. We identified 47 patients with evidence of FMD involving the cervical arteries and 401 patients without FMD. Of the 47 patients with FMD in our neuroendovascular registry, we found that 76.6% were women and 57.4% were Hispanics. There was no statistical significant difference when comparing the variables across ethnicities, except history of cigarette smoking and dyslipidemia. The most common associated supra-aortic arterial lesions seen in the FMD group were intracranial aneurysm and arterial dissections. We then used same variables to compare Hispanic FMD with non-Hispanic FMD. We have found that there has been a positive association of cigarette smoking and dyslipidemia with FMD (p ≤ 0.05).ConclusionOur study suggests that FMD affecting the carotid and vertebral arteries has similar demographic pattern across ethnicities in the United States. In Hispanics, the disease appears to have a predilection for women and history of cigarette smoking. Intracranial aneurysm and arterial dissection were the most commonly associated arterial lesions.

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