Long-Term Results of Endovascular Femoropopliteal Interventions

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Abstract

Background and Objective

Short-term results of endovascular intervention for femoropopliteal lesions have been extensively reported; however, there exists a paucity of long-term objective data related to outcomes of these interventions. We sought to characterize these long-term results including patency, limb salvage, and mortality.

Methods

From May 2003 to July 2009, all patients who underwent technically successful endovascular balloon angioplasty and/or stenting for Trans-Atlantic Inter-Societal Consensus (TASC) II B, C, and D lesions were identified in a retrospective fashion. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, arterial noninvasive data, and angiographic anatomic data were evaluated.

Results

A total of 236 limbs in 186 patients (mean age 74, range 37-94) were treated. Lesion distributions by TASC II classification B, C, and D were 121 (51.3%), 37 (15.7%), and 78 (33%), respectively. Critical limb ischemia (CLI) was the indication for intervention in 42.4% of patients. Five-year primary and primary-assisted patency rates stratified by TASC II classification were B: 55.1%, 91.9%; C: 37.4%, 74.6%; D: 35.5%, 67%, respectively (p = 0.23). Secondary patency based on TASC II classification was B: 92.9%, C: 83%, and D: 75.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified age > 75, CLI, and cerebrovascular disease as predictors for loss of patency. Reinterventions to maintain patency were required in 26.5% of TASC II B, 43.2% of TASC II C, and 25.6% of TASCII D lesions (p = NS) and mean time to reintervention ranged from 22 to 29 months with no significant difference related to TASC II classification. A total of eight limbs (3.38%) were converted to open revascularization with two (0.85%) having a change in their initial preoperatively identified bypass target site. Three limbs (1.27%) required a major amputation during follow-up. Survival at 5 years was 44.3%; CLI and smoking were identified as risk factors for death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 1.75-3.84, p < 0.001, HR 3.33, 1.70-6.52, p < 0.001), respectively.

Conclusion

Long-term patency of endovascular interventions for complicated femoropopliteal lesions is acceptable across TASC II classification and is associated with excellent limb salvage. Mortality in this patient cohort is significant with CLI and smoking being identified as predictors of death.

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