Sex, Weight Status, and Chronic Kidney Disease Among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study


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Abstract

BackgroundObesity has been shown to have implications for chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, it has received minimal attention from scientists studying CKD among African Americans.ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to examine the manner in which weight status has implications for CKD among this group through analysis of data drawn from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS).DesignCross-sectional analysis of a single-site longitudinal population-based cohort.ParticipantsThe data for this study were drawn from the baseline examination of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). The analytic cohort consisted of 3430 African American men and women (21–84 years of age) living in the tricounty area of the Jackson, Mississippi metropolitan areas with complete data to determine CKD status.Main MeasurementsThe primary dependent variable was CKD (defined as the presence of albuminuria or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2). Weight status, the primary predictor, was a 4-category measure based on body mass index.ResultsAssociations were explored through bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for CKD, weight status, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk factors as well as demographic factors. The prevalence of CKD in the JHS was 20%. The proportion of overweight, class I, and class II obese individuals was 32.5%, 26.9%, and 26.2% respectively. In the pooled model, weight status was not found to be associated with CKD; however, subgroup analysis revealed that class II obesity was associated with CKD among men (odds ratio, 2.37; confidence interval, 1.34–4.19) but not among women (odds ratio, 1.32; confidence interval, 0.88–1.98). The relationship between CKD prevalence and diabetes and CKD prevalence and hypertension varied by sex and differed across weight categories.ConclusionsWeight status has implications for CKD among the JHS participants, and this study underscores the need for additional research investigating the relationship between weight status, sex, and CKD among African Americans.

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