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Unilateral acute renal failure lasting at least 7 days was induced in the dog with an intra-arterial norepinephrine infusion at a dose (0.75 µg/kg/min) which induces virtually complete renal ischemia for 2 hours. The functional, histologic, angiographic, and hemodynamic characteristics of the kidney are identical to those associated with acute renal failure in man. The characteristics suggest a preferential reduction of cortical perfusion. The vessels are histologically and angiographically normal postmortem, suggesting a functional pathogenesis of the vascular abnormality which is confined to the manipulated kidney. The syndrome is neither reproduced with lower doses of norepinephrine nor by renal artery occlusion for the same period. The results provide definitive evidence for an intrarenal mechanism in the maintenance of the extreme renal vasoconstriction found in acute renal failure, and also a healthy model, free of uremia, for the study of the pathogenesis of this syndrome.