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A pyridoxine (vitamin B6)-deficient diet in rats was used as a model of early renal lithiasis to find out if “stone-formers” could be identified from control animals by differences in the biodistribution of Tc-99m MDP. The mean renal uptake of this agent at 3 hours was about 70% higher in test animals than in controls, but there was considerable overlap between the upper limits of the normal range and lower values in “stone-formers.” If these results were valid for humans, the metabolic abnormality in males with early stone-forming disease could not be identified with certainty by in vivo measurements of Tc-99m MDP renal uptake alone. However, the skeletal uptake of MDP in the “stone-forming” animals was depressed by 28 to 35%, compared with control rats. Consequently, the renal to skeletal MDP concentration ratio was invariably elevated in “stone-formers” beyond the 95 percentile normal range. Unexpectedly, 76% of the pyridoxine-deficient animals had a higher accumulation of MDP in the myocardium than the upper limit of the normal range. The pyridoxine-deficient diet induced no remarkable early changes in the biodistribution or renal clearance of I-131 Hippuran.