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Isolated segments of the right jugular veins of six mongrel dogs were exposed to solutions of 60% diatrizoate (3 dogs) and 60% iopamidol (3 dogs) in vivo. Normal blood flow was re-established after 3 minutes of exposure to the contrast material. The left jugular veins served as controls. Veins were harvested at 1,24, and 48 hours and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Changes consisting of cellular swelling, denudation, platelet aggregation and fibrin deposition were uniform and prominent with diatrizoate. Response to iopamidol was minimal consisting only of cellular swelling. The study suggests that post-phlebographic thrombophlebitis may be reduced by the use of nonionic contrast materials.