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Nelson RC, Chezmar JL, Newberry LB, Malko JA, Gedgaudas-McClees RK, Bernardino ME. Manganese dipyridoxyl diphosphate: effect of dose, time, and pulse sequence on hepatic enhancement in rats. Invest Radiol 1991;26:569-573.We used an animal model to investigate the hepatic enhancement characteristics of manganese dipyridoxyl diphosphate (MnDPDP) related to time, dose, and pulse sequence. The contrast doses selected were in the human tolerance range. Using an SE 300/15 pulse sequence, maximum mean hepatic enhancement of 45% (8 µmol/kg) and 58% (12 µmol/kg) over baseline was seen during a plateau maintained between 5 and 50 minutes postinjection in the 8 µmol/kg group, and between 10 and 90 minutes in the 12 µmol/kg group. This plateau was followed by a very gradual decline in hepatic enhancement. Using either 4 or 8 µmol/kg, there was a significant increase in postcontrast hepatic intensity on all relatively T1-weighted pulse sequences (spin echo [SE] 300/15, inversion recovery [IR] 1400/20/400, gradient echo [GE] 47/13/80°, and GE 60/20/30°) except GE 47/13/80° at 4 µmol/kg. At 8 µmol/kg there was superior enhancement, with IR 1400/20/400 and SE 300/15, but at 4 µmol/kg there was no consistently superior sequence. None of the relatively T2-weighted pulse sequences (SE 2000/50, SE 2000/100, or GE 100/30/20°) demonstrated a significant change in hepatic intensity using either dose of contrast. The data suggest that the best combination of dose, pulse sequence, and time for hepatic imaging with MnDPDP is 8 µmol/kg using heavily T1-weighted sequences 5 to 60 minutes following contrast administration.