NMRD Investigation of DyDTPA- and GdDTPA-Labeled Starch Particles: Selection of a Suitable Suspension Medium and Influence of the Starch Matrix on Relaxivity


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Abstract

Fossheim SL, Spiller M, Kellar KE. NMRD investigation of DyDTPA- and GdDTPA-labeled starch particles: Selection of a suitable suspension medium and influence of the starch matrix on relaxivity. Invest Radiol 1999;34:287–295.RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES.The primary aim was to investigate the influence of the starch matrix on the T1 relaxivities of starch particles labeled with gadolinium and dysprosium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (GdDTPA-SP and DyDTPA-SP). Achieving this required the selection of a medium that was suitable for suspending the particles and that had field-independent T1 relaxation rates, thereby eliminating errors in relaxivity determinations resulting from a field-dependent background.METHODS.GdDTPA-SP with low and high gadolinium content, DyDTPA-SP, and empty DTPA-SP were suspended in an aqueous medium containing 5% (w/w) of a polyethylene glycol-based block copolymer. 1/T1 NMRD profiles were obtained in the temperature range of 5° to 35° C.RESULTS.Using the block copolymer, particles did not settle, and samples could be prepared at a low temperature to avoid particle degradation. the intrinsic T1 relaxation rate of the suspension medium was field-independent and identical to that of water from 25° to 35° C. The T1 relaxivities of DyDTPA-SP were higher than those of dysprosium diethylenetriamine pentaacetate-bis(methylamide) (DyDTPA-BMA) and decreased with increasing magnetic field strength. The T1 relaxivity of GdDTPA-SP was higher than that of GdDTPA at all fields, and decreased with decreasing temperature and increasing gadolinium content.CONCLUSIONS.The GdDTPA-SP results showed that the particulate starch matrix served a dual role, with opposing influences on relaxivity. It provided a means for increasing the rotational correlation time (τR), which resulted in higher relaxivities. However, it also retarded radial diffusion of water molecules within the particle interior, which significantly counteracted the enhancing effect of τR. For DyDTPA-SP, the starch matrix provided an additional diamagnetic contribution, resulting in relaxivities higher than those of DyDTPA-BMA. The block copolymer was suitable as a suspension medium for DyDTPA-SP and GdDTPA-SP and should also be applicable for other particulates.

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