Screening Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Based Prediction Model for Assessing Immediate Therapeutic Response to Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids

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ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to fit and validate screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based prediction models for assessing immediate therapeutic responses of uterine fibroids to MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation.Materials and MethodsInformed consent from all subjects was obtained for our institutional review board–approved study. A total of 240 symptomatic uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 6.9 cm) in 152 women (mean age, 43.3 years) treated with MR-HIFU ablation were retrospectively analyzed (160 fibroids for training, 80 fibroids for validation). Screening MRI parameters (subcutaneous fat thickness [mm], x1; relative peak enhancement [%] in semiquantitative perfusion MRI, x2; T2 signal intensity ratio of fibroid to skeletal muscle, x3) were used to fit prediction models with regard to ablation efficiency (nonperfused volume/treatment cell volume, y1) and ablation quality (grade 1-5, poor to excellent, y2), respectively, using the generalized estimating equation method. Cutoff values for achievement of treatment intent (efficiency >1.0; quality grade 4/5) were determined based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Prediction performances were validated by calculating positive and negative predictive values.ResultsGeneralized estimating equation analyses yielded models of y1 = 2.2637 − 0.0415x1 − 0.0011x2 − 0.0772x3 and y2 = 6.8148 − 0.1070x1 − 0.0050x2 − 0.2163x3. Cutoff values were 1.312 for ablation efficiency (area under the curve, 0.7236; sensitivity, 0.6882; specificity, 0.6866) and 4.019 for ablation quality (0.8794; 0.7156; 0.9020). Positive and negative predictive values were 0.917 and 0.500 for ablation efficiency and 0.978 and 0.600 for ablation quality, respectively.ConclusionsScreening MRI-based prediction models for assessing immediate therapeutic responses of uterine fibroids to MR-HIFU ablation were fitted and validated, which may reduce the risk of unsuccessful treatment.

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