Clinical and optical coherence tomographic findings and outcome of treatment in patients with presumed tuberculous uveitis

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Abstract

Purpose

To define the clinical characteristics and optical coherence tomographic (OCT) features, and to assess the outcome of treatment, in patients with presumed tuberculous uveitis (PTU).

Methods

All patients diagnosed with PTU at King Abdulaziz University Hospital between January 1998 and May 2006 were reviewed. The diagnosis was made when findings were consistent with possible intraocular tuberculosis with no other cause of uveitis suggested by history, symptoms, or ancillary testing, strongly positive tuberculin skin-test results, and response to antituberculous therapy.

Results

Fifty-one patients (73 eyes) were identified. There were 34 males (66.7%) and 17 females (33.3%) with a mean age of 40.1 ± 11.0 years (range 16–68 years). Fifty-eight eyes (79.5%) had panuveitis and 15 eyes (20.5%) had posterior uveitis at presentation. Clinical manifestations included vitritis (71.2%), macular edema (63%), retinal periphlebitis (35.6%), multifocal choroiditis (20.5%), and granulomatous anterior uveitis (17.9%). All patients received antituberculous therapy and systemic corticosteroids. After a mean follow-up of 18.9 ± 21.9 months (range 6–96 months), all eyes showed resolution of inflammation, with no recurrences, associated with significant improvement in visual acuity (VA) (P = 0.007). There was a significant positive correlation between initial and final VAs (r = 0.7856, P < 0.001). Thirty-one eyes with macular edema were examined at baseline and at follow-up with OCT. There were three patterns of macular edema: diffuse (DME) (28.5%), cystoid (29%), and serous retinal detachment (45.2%). Initial VA of 20/40 or better was significantly associated with central macular thickness (CMT) of 300 μm or less (P = 0.0065) and DME (0.0484). At final follow-up, there was a significant reduction in CMT (P < 0.001) associated with a significant improvement in VA (P = 0.0091).

Conclusions

Antituberculous therapy combined with systemic corticosteroids leads to resolution of inflammation and elimination of recurrences of PTU. OCT is useful in monitoring the efficacy of treatment in patients with macular edema.

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