Designing peptide-based FSL constructs to create Miltenberger kodecytes

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KODE technology involves the synthesis of function-spacer-lipid (FSL) constructs and their insertion into cell membranes to create kodecytes. The functional group in FSLs includes blood group antigens and can be used to create synthetic antigen-modified red cells.


To review the issues in constructing peptide-based FSLs, with an emphasis on MNS system hybrid glycophorins and the resultant Miltenberger kodecytes.

Materials and Methods

Peptides suitable for synthesis into FSL constructs are ligated to a carboxymethylated oligoglycine spacer attached to a lipid tail. Simple contact of these FSL constructs with red cells allows for their spontaneous insertion into the cell membrane, creating kodecytes.


Once optimized peptide sequences are identified, FSL constructs are simple and easy to build. Field trials established Miltenberger kodecytes were functional and able to identify clinically significant IgG antibodies.


This review explores the issues with creating peptide-based FSL constructs, with an emphasis on the relatively simple MUT/Mur FSLs. With the recent development of easy-to-use construct-your-own FSL-peptide kits, researchers can now produce their own extended range of peptide-based blood group kodecytes.


Provided possible complications/issues have been taken into account, FSL-peptides can be easily synthesized and used to make kodecytes representative of selected protein blood antigens/epitopes.

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