Blood transfusion is an important component of modern day medicine. As doctors our first consideration must always be the interests and safety of our patients. Haemovigilance programmes collect and analyse data on untoward events associated with transfusion. The information collated should be shared with health professionals who prescribe and administer blood products so that they can continue to deliver the good without unintended negative consequences.
The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare (EQDM) defines the standards for haemovigilance and acknowledges that it is a shared responsibility of the professionals in the field and the competent national authorities for blood safety. It includes the surveillance of donor-related events, epidemiological assessment of infections in donors, full traceability of blood components, device defects and reporting of post-transfusion infections.
Implementation of a national haemovigilance system is a complex task and usually takes months of planning. Apart from the multiple resources it requires, a number of issues need to be considered: what is to be reported, how will it be reported and who will do the reporting. In addition, information and training needs to be provided to the key stakeholders.
In order for a haemovigilance programme to be effective the data need to be collated, analysed and relayed back to the hospitals. Comprehensive annual haemovigilance reports that are readily accessible can include recommendations to promote strategies to reduce transfusion-related risks.
In New Zealand the National Haemovigilance Programme was established in 2005. The population of New Zealand is 4·1 million. Reporting is voluntary and usually mediated via the hospital blood banks. The larger hospitals have Transfusion Nurse Specialists (TNSs) who provide education and assist with reporting adverse events. New Zealand is a country member of the Internal Haemovigilance Network (IHN) and utilizes the definitions of reporting categories agreed upon by the IHN. The majority of reports involve reactions that are mild. The overall rate of an adverse event is approximately 1 in 300 units transfused. Platelet concentrates are more frequently associated with reactions compared with other blood components and reactions are predominantly of the allergic type.
The Haemovigilance Programme has demonstrated a reduction in the reported rate of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) since the introduction of male donor fresh frozen plasma (FFP) 3 years ago. The programme has also identified that bacterial contamination of blood components, incorrect blood component transfused (IBCT), wrong blood in tube (WBIT) and acute haemolytic transfusion reactions due to transfusion of passive haemolysin are risks that require further attention.
Complications associated with blood donation are also included in the annual haemovigilance reports. Vasovagal reactions are the most frequently occurring donation-associated event and are higher in donors under the age of 20 years.
Ongoing surveillance and review of untoward events associated with transfusion is vital so that we can continue to minimize risks related to blood products.