Callus concentration regulates somatic embryo production in orchardgrass suspension cultures

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Abstract

The effects of callus inoculation concentration and culture duration on somatic embryogenesis of orchardgrass, Dactylis glomerata L., were evaluated in suspension cultures of an embryogenic genotype Embryogen-P. Somatic embryo formation was induced in liquid SH medium containing 30 μM dicamba (SH-30 and 1.5% casein hydrolysate; embryo development was in liquid SH medium without plant growth regulators (SH-0); and embryo maturation and germination occurred on solid SH-0 medium. Callus proliferation in SH-30 suspension cultures was greatest when callus was inoculated into the liquid medium at a relatively high concentration of 4% (4 g callus/100 ml medium), but the induction of somatic embryos was highest in this medium if the callus was inoculated at a lower concentration (<2%). In a second experiment, somatic embryo yield was highest when SH-0 development medium was inoculated with suspension culture callus at 0.1% concentration and declined markedly as inoculation concentration increased. Cell concentration is a critical factor in regulating the somatic embryogenesis response in orchardgrass suspension cultures.

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