Enhancing the productivity of hybrid yellow-poplar and hybrid sweetgum embryogenic cultures

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Abstract

High-frequency embryogenesis systems were established for hybrid yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera×L. chinense) and hybrid sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua×L. formosana) by modifying a medium originally developed for embryogenic yellow-poplar cultures. Embryogenic cultures of both hybrids, consisting of proembryogenic masses (PEMs), were initiated from immature hybrid seeds on an induction-maintenance medium (IMM) supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), benzyladenine (BA), and casein hydrolyzate (CH). For hybrid yellow-poplar, as many as 2100 germinable somatic embryos per 4000 cells or cell clumps were produced when PEMs were grown in liquid IMM lacking CH, at a pH that varied with genotype (3.5 or 5.6), followed by size fractionation and plating on semisolid embryo development medium (DM; IMM lacking 2,4-D and BA) without CH, but supplemented with 4.0 mgl−1 (15 μM) abscisic acid. For hybrid sweetgum, up to 1650 germinable somatic embryos per 4000 cells or cell clumps were produced when PEMs were grown in liquid IMM without CH, but with 550 mgl−1l-glutamine, 510 mg l−1 asparagine, and 170 mg l−1 arginine at pH 5.6. Somatic embryos developed from cell clumps on DM without any plant growth regulators or other supplements. Hundreds of somatic embryos of both hybrids were germinated on DM without CH, transferred to potting mix, and hardened off in a humidifying chamber for transfer to the greenhouse.

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