A protocol for large-scale propagation of Phragmites communis Trin. by adventitious bud formation and plant regeneration was established. Adventitious buds were induced through either the indirect pathway or the direct pathway from stem explants of Phragmites communis. In the indirect pathway, it was essential to decrease the level of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from 9.1 to 0.5 μM to induce adventitious buds and achieve plant regeneration. In the direct pathway, the effects of different benzylaminopurine (BA) concentrations in the medium, and different positions of the explants, on adventitious bud formation were determined. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.4μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 53.4 μM BA, and the bottom part of stem explants were most responsive for the differentiation of adventitious shoot buds. The highest differentiation frequency was 20-30 adventitious shoot buds per stem node tissue. Elongation and proliferation of adventitious buds were achieved on MS medium supplemented with 13.3 μM BA and 5.4 μM NAA. Shoots were rooted in liquid half-strength MS medium with 5.4 μM NAA+4.9 μM indole-3-butyric acid. Rooted plants survived (87.5%) and grew well after transfer into soil for 4 wk. More than 20 000 regenerated plants of a salt-tolerant variant line of Phragmites communis have been produced. This protocol is useful for clonal micropropagation and possibly for Agrobacterium- mediated gene transfer in P. communis.