Since the 1960s, numerous studies on sugarcane plant regeneration have been reported. Essentially, successful culture and regeneration of plants from protoplasts, cells, callus, and various tissue and organs, have been achieved in this crop. Although plant regeneration from callus cultures had been reported since the 1960s, definitive proof of somatic embryo development was not available until 1983. Since then, considerable progress has been made in understanding and refining somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in sugarcane, for which development of an efficient embryogenic system was critical for the application of transgenic technology. Recent research in Australia and South Africa has led to the development of direct somatic embryogenic systems, which may improve transgenesis in sugarcane.