Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is a perennial, invasive weed used as a model to study invasive plant behavior, because molecular tools (such as a deep expressed sequence tag database and deoxyribonucleic acid microarrays) have been developed for this species. However, the lack of effective in vitro regeneration and genetic transformation systems has hampered molecular approaches to study leafy spurge. In this study, we describe an efficient in vitro regeneration system. Three highly regenerative lines were selected by screening the in vitro regeneration capabilities of stem explants of 162 seedlings. The effects of various culture conditions on in vitro regeneration were then evaluated based on explant competence to form calluses and shoots. High rates of shoot regeneration can be obtained using a growth medium containing 1× woody plant basal medium and 1× Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts, 1× MS vitamins, 1.11 μM 6-benzylaminopurine, 1.97 μM indole-3-butyric acid, and 3% sucrose, pH 5.6-5.8. After 30 d culture, multiple shoots formed either directly from the stem or indirectly from the callus. This method is a requisite for the development of genetic transformation systems for leafy spurge and may be used to develop in vitro regeneration techniques for other species in the Euphorbiaceae.