Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a condition that can develop in about half of the patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs.
In the present study, we evaluated the expression of inflammatory biomarkers in the early phases of DVT and their correlation with the onset of PTS.
Patients were enrolled after the first episode of DVT and were followed up for 1, 4, 8, 12 and 18 months. At each visit, blood sample was collected to evaluate plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1,-2,-3,-7,-8 and -9 MMP inhibitors, TIMP-1,-2, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cytokines TNF-α and IL-6.
Analysis included 201 patients [86 males (42·79%) and 115 females (57·21%); average age 56 ± 7 years].
Of the 201 patients, 47 (23·38%; 21 males, 26 females) developed PTS during the follow-up period.
The control group was made up of 60 individuals without DVT (22 males and 38 females).
High plasma levels of MMPs, NGAL and cytokines were recorded during the acute phase after DVT. Moreover, patients with PTS showed higher levels of MMP-1 and MMP-8 with respect to patients without PTS.
There is a close relationship between DVT, the individual risk of PTS and specific biomarkers such as MMPs and other related molecules, which may help guide prevention and therapy based on the patient's individual risk profile, and has to be studied in future.