The 2001 anthrax attacks on the United States brought bioterrorism to the forefront of the medical community. Because many bioterrorist agents produce cutaneous disease, dermatologists will likely be first responders during a future attack. Despite this, many dermatologists are not adequately prepared to deal with a bioterrorism attack. It is critical that all first responders be able to recognize symptoms of bioterrorism-related disease and prepared to respond to a bioterrorist attack to minimize threats to public health. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by potential biowarfare agents that produce cutaneous manifestations, and also provides information regarding reporting and containment of possible bioterrorism-related diseases.