Keratitis, ichthyosis, and deafness (KID) syndrome: A review of infectious and neoplastic complications

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Abstract

Keratitis, ichthyosis, and deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare genodermatosis associated with mutations in the connexin 26 gene. Although characterized by this clinical triad, KID syndrome predisposes to a heterogeneous spectrum of cutaneous manifestations and complications, both infectious and neoplastic in nature. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and/or superinfection of skin lesions commonly occur and warrant aggressive therapeutic intervention. Benign neoplasms, namely trichilemmal tumors, have also been reported and can herald malignant growth and invasive disease. Squamous cell carcinoma of both mucosa and skin, especially acral sites, occurs in approximately 15% of patients. The pathogenesis of KID syndrome can be at least partially explained by the role of connexin 26 in intercellular communication and carcinogenesis, but the precise mechanism of disease remains unclear. Treatment strategies, which have ranged from antifungals and antibiotics to systemic retinoids, pose an ongoing challenge given the spectrum of disease. A review of the literature, with a particular focus on infection and malignancy associated with KID syndrome, and updates on the pathogenesis of disease, is discussed.

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