Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Fungal, helminthic, protozoan and ectoparasitic infections

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Abstract

Given increased international travel, immigration, changing climate conditions, and the increased incidence of iatrogenic immunosuppression, fungal, protozoan, helminthic, and ectoparasitic infections that were once uncommon are being seeing more frequently in the Western hemisphere. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. In addition, delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnostic modalities, and treatment options for emerging fungal, protozoan, helminthic, and ectoparasitic infections. It should be noted, however, that throughout this review we cite statistics documenting their increased incidence to back-up these infections as emerging, and although some of the diagnoses are clinical, others rely on newer laboratory tests, and the possibility exists that the increased incidence could be caused by better detection methods.

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