Diagnosis and management of peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum: A systematic review

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Abstract

Background:

Peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG) is an uncommon subtype of pyoderma gangrenosum. PPG is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat; no evidence-based guidelines exist.

Objective:

We sought to identify important clinical features of PPG and effective treatments available for its management.

Methods:

A systematic literature review of PPG was performed using PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases.

Results:

We describe 335 patients with PPG from 79 studies. Clinical features include a painful, rapidly progressing ulcer with undermined, violaceous borders with a history of ostomy leakage and local skin irritation or trauma. Systemic steroids are first-line therapy; infliximab and adalimumab provide concomitant control of active inflammatory bowel disease. Combination local and systemic therapy was commonly used. Wound dressings, vehicle selection, and appropriate ostomy devices to minimize leakage, irritation, and pressure-induced ischemia can improve healing. Distinct from classic ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum, surgical approaches, such as stoma closure and resection of active inflammatory bowel disease, have an effective role in PPG management.

Limitations:

PPG is a rare disease lacking randomized trials or diagnostic guidelines. Treatment duration and follow-up time among studies are variable.

Conclusions:

Key clinical characteristics of PPG are highlighted. Several treatments, including a more prominent role for surgical intervention, may be effective for PPG treatment.

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