Along with the increase in lifestyle expectations in the aging population, a dramatic rise in surgical rates has been observed over the past 2 decades. Consequently, the rate of revision spine surgery is expected to increase. A systematic approach to treatment is required for the adult patient presenting with late or chronic complications after spinal surgery. Patient assessment includes elucidating current symptoms and knowledge of the previous surgery, performing a detailed assessment, and obtaining appropriate studies. Subsequently, differential diagnoses are formulated based on whether the pathology arises from the same levels or adjacent levels of the spine and whether it relates to the previous decompression or fusion. Finally, familiarity with different surgical approaches is imperative in treating the common pathologies encountered in this patient population.