Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common complication of the surgical treatment of acetabular fractures. HO is the formation of trabecular bone in soft tissues where bone does not usually occur. Over the last decade, many risk factors have been identified for HO after surgical fixation of acetabular fractures; however, prophylaxis and treatment of this condition are controversial. Potential preventive measures range from NSAIDs to external beam irradiation, but recent studies have questioned the utility of these measures. The Brooker classification system, which has been correlated with patient function and outcomes, is most commonly used to describe HO severity. Advances will assist in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of HO as well as the assessment of risk factors that could affect outcomes.