Chronic Achilles Ruptures: Reconstructive Options

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Abstract

Achilles tendon ruptures, if neglected or identified late, lead to impairments in function and gait. Surgical reconstruction is typically required to restore the resting length and tension to the gastrocnemius-soleus complex. A variety of reconstructive options have been described, depending on several factors, including chronicity, residual gap size, remaining tissue quality and vascularity, location of tendon rupture or deficiency, and patient-specific factors. Despite the many surgical options described from local soft-tissue rearrangements and tendon transfers, to the use of allograft tissue and synthetic material augmentation, there is understandably a paucity of evidence-based guidelines available to direct surgeons in the optimal procedure for each patient-specific situation. Reconstructive options for the patient with a chronic Achilles rupture are detailed and reviewed here, to serve as a framework for the treating surgeon in these complex cases.

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