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Increasingly, renal cell cancer is diagnosed because of an incidental finding of a renal mass on an imaging study. Incidentally discovered masses are more likely to be small and, if malignant, represent localized renal cell cancer. The imaging features of the tumor and patient characteristics inform the management options, which favor a nephron-sparing approach over radical nephrectomy. Clinical stage at the time of diagnosis has important prognostic implications for the patient. This article reviews the presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of an incidentally discovered renal mass.