This study compared the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) scores of traumatized youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to the scores of trauma-exposed and nonexposed comparison groups without PTSD. All groups were free of additional major childhood psychiatric disorders. The PTSD group scored significantly lower than the comparison groups on verbal subtests, but not on performance subtests. The scores of the trauma-exposed PTSD negatives and nontrauma exposed controls were not significantly different. Accordingly, PTSD and not a history of trauma exposure in the absence of PTSD was associated with lower verbal IQ.