Establishing a therapeutic index for the inhaled corticosteroids: Part I.: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic comparison of the inhaled corticosteroids

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The inhaled corticosteroids contain physicochemical differences that alter both glucocorticoid receptor-binding characteristics and the pharmacokinetic variables of these drugs. Differences in receptor-binding affinity translate into differences in potency for different drugs. Differences in pharmacokinetics, however, determine the topical effect to systemic effect ratio, or the "pulmonary targeting" of the drug. Beneficial pharmacokinetic properties that may improve pulmonary targeting include low oral bioavailability, rapid systemic clearance, and slow absorption from the lung. Delivery devices can produce clinically significant differences in topical activity by altering the dose deposited in the lung and, for orally absorbed drugs, the amount deposited in the oropharynx and swallowed. Clinical trials have confirmed that differences in potency or drug delivery of 2-fold or more can be detected in patients with asthma. However, because of the relatively flat nature of the dose-response curve for morning peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the trials must be adequately powered and well controlled. The use of bronchial provocation measures are problematic because of the prolonged lag time for response. Study design flaws can lead to misinterpretation of results. Clinical studies have indicated the following relative potency differences: fluticasone propionate > budesonide = beclomethasone dipropionate > triamcinolone acetonide = flunisolide. Current evidence suggests that potency differences can be overcome by giving larger doses of the less potent drug. However, because of these potency differences, studies of systemic effects should not be done in isolation of adequate topical activity studies to define the pulmonary targeting of the drugs.

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