Regulatory T-cell deficiency and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked–like disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations inLRBA

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Abstract

Background:

A number of heritable immune dysregulatory diseases result from defects affecting regulatory T (Treg) cell development, function, or both. They include immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome, which is caused by mutations in forkhead box P3(FOXP3), and IPEX-like disorders caused by mutations in IL-2 receptor α(IL2RA), signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b(STAT5b), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1(STAT1). However, the genetic defects underlying many cases of IPEX-like disorders remain unknown.

Objective:

We sought to identify the genetic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic IPEX-like disorders.

Methods:

We performed whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing and phenotypic and functional analyses of Treg cells.

Results:

A child who presented with an IPEX-like syndrome and severe Treg cell deficiency was found to harbor a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding LPS-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA), which was previously implicated as a cause of common variable immunodeficiency with autoimmunity. Analysis of subjects with LRBA deficiency revealed marked Treg cell depletion; profoundly decreased expression of canonical Treg cell markers, including FOXP3, CD25, Helios, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4; and impaired Treg cell–mediated suppression. There was skewing in favor of memory T cells and intense autoantibody production, with marked expansion of T follicular helper and contraction of T follicular regulatory cells. Whereas the frequency of recent thymic emigrants and the differentiation of induced Treg cells were normal, LRBA-deficient T cells exhibited increased apoptosis and reduced activities of the metabolic sensors mammalian target of rapamycin complexes 1 and 2.

Conclusion:

LRBA deficiency is a novel cause of IPEX-like syndrome and Treg cell deficiency associated with metabolic dysfunction and increased apoptosis of Treg cells.

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